What is an inverter? The meanings of inverter

Rusq.org explains what inverter means

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What is an inverter? Working principle of inverter? - Website Rusq Website
What is an inverter? Working principle of inverter? – Rusq website

What is an Inverter?

  • An inverter is a device that converts alternating current at one frequency into alternating current at another frequency that can be adjusted.

Working principle of inverter biến

  • – The basic working principle of the inverter is also quite simple. First, a single-phase or three-phase AC power source is rectified and filtered into a flat DC power source. This stage is performed by a diode bridge rectifier and a capacitor. As a result, the cosphi power factor of the inverter system is independent of the load and has a value of at least 0.96. This DC voltage is converted (reversed) into a symmetrical 3-phase AC voltage. This stage is currently done through the IGBT (isolated gate bipolar transistor) system by pulse width modulation (PWM). Thanks to the advancement of microprocessor technology and current power semiconductor technology, the pulse switching frequency can be up to the ultrasonic frequency range to reduce motor noise and reduce the loss on the motor iron core.
  • – The 3-phase AC voltage system at the output can change the amplitude and frequency values steplessly depending on the controller. Theoretically, there is a certain rule between frequency and voltage depending on the control mode. For loads with constant torque, the voltage-frequency ratio is constant. However, for pump and fan loads, this rule is a quaternary function. Voltage is a quaternary function of frequency. This results in a torque characteristic that is a quadratic function of speed suitable for the pump/fan load requirements since the torque itself is a quadratic function of voltage.
  • – The power conversion efficiency of the inverters is very high because of the use of power semiconductor components manufactured according to modern technology. As a result, the energy consumed is approximately equal to the energy required by the system.
  • – In addition, today’s inverters have integrated many different control types suitable for most different types of loads. Today, the inverter has integrated PID and is suitable for many different communication standards, very suitable for control and monitoring in SCADA system.

Why use an inverter?

From the above formula, we see that there are 3 methods to change the engine speed:

  • Change the number of motor poles P
  • Change the coefficient of slip s
  • Change the frequency f of the input voltage

In which, the first two methods are difficult to implement and do not bring high efficiency. The method of changing the motor speed by changing the frequency is the most effective method. Inverter is a device used to change the frequency of the power supply applied to the motor thereby changing the motor speed.

The inverter can change the frequency from 0Hz to 400Hz (some inverter models adjust to 590Hz or higher). Therefore, it is possible to make the motor run faster than usual compared to running at 50Hz.

Inverter classification

  • Inverters have many types, if divided by input power, we have 2 basic types: inverters for 1-phase motors and inverters for 3-phase motors. Among them, inverters for 3-phase motors are more widely used.

Benefits of using inverters:

  • Significant energy savings compared to direct motor drive method.
  • Inverters usually have electronic systems for overcurrent, overvoltage and undervoltage protection, creating a safe system for operation.
  • Thanks to the working principle of inverting conversion through diodes and capacitors, the reactive power from the motor is very low, thus reducing the current significantly during operation, reducing the cost of installing compensating capacitors, and minimizing waste. power loss on the line.
  • The inverter is integrated with communication modules that make control and monitoring from the center very easy.
  • Easily change the motor speed, reverse the motor rotation direction.
  • The inrush current is reduced compared to the direct method, star-delta starting, so there is no voltage drop or difficulty in starting.
  • The process of starting through the low-speed magnetic inverter helps to prevent the motor carrying a large load from starting suddenly, avoiding damage to the mechanical part, the bearing, and increasing the life of the motor.

Inverter application:

  • Due to its outstanding advantages, inverters are widely used in industry and civil, especially in industry. Here are some common applications that are indispensable for inverters: Water pumps, suction/push fans, air compressors, conveyors, lifting equipment, rolling mills, injection molding machines, winding/unloading machines, elevators , HVAC systems, mixers, centrifuges, improving the controllability of the gearboxes, replacing the traditional stepless control mechanism in the working machine, etc.


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