What is Hybrid? Meanings of Hybrid

Rusq.org explains what Hybrid means

  • Welcome to Rusq.org, which specializes in aggregating all questions and answers, what is the definition, discussing and answering what the abbreviation stands for among young people, today let’s learn a new concept, what is Hybrid? The meanings of Hybrid. What is a Hybrid Car? How do they work? What is a hybrid car and why is it so popular?
Advantages - Disadvantages of Hybrid cars and challenges in Vietnam - Website Rusq
Advantages – Disadvantages of Hybrid cars and challenges in Vietnam – Website Rusq

What is the definition of Hybrid?

  • A vehicle is called “Hybrid” if it uses two or more types of energy to generate traction. To be more precise, a hybrid vehicle will be equipped with a traditional internal combustion engine, a fuel tank, a battery pack and one or more electric motors. Hybrid cars are often confused with “electric vehicles” – vehicles that only use externally charged electrical energy to operate, this type of vehicle is called “Plug-in Hybrid”. In the next section, I will talk more about this vehicle.
  • Hybrid vehicles are built to combine a gasoline engine and an electric motor properly to achieve different requirements, for example: improving fuel consumption, increasing power or providing more power. for electronic devices and in-vehicle amenities..etc…
  • In theory, the Diesel-Electric hybrid vehicle will be the more efficient model in terms of fuel economy. However, this system has a complicated structure and the production cost is much higher than the petrol-electric form. Therefore, Hybrid Diesel-Electric cars are not as popular as the current petrol-powered Hybrid models.

Terms commonly used on Hybrid vehicles

Here are the terms commonly used when referring to hybrid vehicles:

  • Automatic start / stop function (Automatic Star / Stop): is a part equipped on most Hybrid models, it has the function of disconnecting the gasoline engine every time the vehicle stops (eg when stopping at a red light). and restart the engine every time the vehicle needs to move (eg when the green light turns on) completely automatically, similar to the Idling Stop system on current Honda motorcycles that you already know. . This function proves to be very effective when the car has to move a lot in the city, the reason is that the amount of fuel wasted when the engine is idling is completely reduced.
  • Electric motor (also known as electric motor): is a very important part, it plays many roles in a Hybrid car such as supporting the gasoline engine when the car needs to accelerate quickly, acting as a generator, which converts energy from the gasoline engine and brake energy regenerative system into electricity stored in the battery pack… In addition, the electric motor can also help start the gasoline engine instantly in necessary case. Some hybrid models have up to 2 (Porsche 918 Spyder), or maybe even 3 electric motors.
  • Regenerative Braking: An important function of the electric motor is to generate electrical current to recharge the vehicle’s battery pack. In addition to converting kinetic energy from the gasoline engine, the electric motor also absorbs some of the inertia force when the vehicle is decelerating or “dropping downhill” and converts it into electrical current stored in the vehicle’s battery pack. Normally, gasoline or diesel cars simply do not take advantage of this energy source and it is converted into another useless (even harmful) form of energy, which is the heat emitted on the surface of the vehicle. brake system.
  • Electric drive function: The electric motor also has another important function, that is to support the gasoline engine in situations where additional power is needed such as acceleration, overtaking or climbing a mountain. For example… This allows the manufacturer to have complete peace of mind when installing a compact engine on the car, because it already has a powerful assistant, the electric motor. In addition, in some cases, the electric motor also takes over the task of the gasoline engine. For example, when traveling in the city at low speed, the electric motor alone will “pull” the car away, until the battery pack is almost exhausted, the gasoline engine will be started to “receive” the task, and at the same time generate rechargeable energy for the battery pack etc… Thus, both parts are flexibly swapped tasks and create great efficiency in fuel usage.

Above are some basic concepts and terms about Hybrid cars. Not all Hybrid models are fully equipped with these parts and have the same operating mechanism, it all depends on the layout and arrangement of the parts together (Layout).

Popular Hybrid Platforms

Parallel Hybrid:

  • This is the simplest and least “expensive” Hybrid model, so it is applied quite a lot on cars. On this platform, the gasoline engine only does a single task of providing power to the vehicle, the electric motor plays a supporting role for the gasoline engine whenever the car needs strong acceleration, for example when accelerating. speed, overtake or climb a pass, for example…
  • If the remaining battery capacity is large enough, the electric motor will replace the gasoline engine in situations where the car moves slowly and does not require much power. In this model, the Regenerative Braking system will play the main role in “charging the battery”, not the electric motor. Therefore, the energy “recovery” speed of the battery assembly will take place quite slowly.

Series Hybrid:

  • This is the oldest hybrid model, it has been applied on locomotives and ships that appeared in the last century. In a vehicle using a Series Hybrid platform, the electric motor plays a direct role in driving the wheels. Therefore, the requirement is that the electric motor must have great power, leading to its very large size. Although powered by an electric motor, this type of vehicle is still considered a Hybrid vehicle because it still uses a gasoline engine to generate electricity to supply the electric motor and acts as a “genuine generator”.
  • Today there are hardly any hybrid cars using this platform. However, this “oldest” platform is still used in cars that use energy from Hydrogen fuel cells instead of using traditional gasoline engines to generate electricity.

Series-Parallel Hybrid:

  • As its name says it all, this Hybrid model is a combination of the two types mentioned above. It is the platform with the most complex structure, and of course the highest production and cost. However, the value it brings is well worth it, Series-Parallel Hybrid cars always have the best fuel consumption, have the longest battery life and maximum speed achieved. is the highest compared to other platforms.
  • In this model, the power generated from the gasoline engine and the electric motor are flexibly combined to complement each other and create the best performance for the vehicle. The gasoline engine will play the role of providing the main power for the car, the electric motor will support the gasoline engine when needed (Parallel Hybrid model). Electricity will be stored in the battery pack (usually Li-ion type) of the car, it will be charged through the regenerative braking system (Regenerative Braking) and also the kinetic energy generated from the gasoline engine (the model). Series Hybrid model).
  • Therefore, if operated alternately, the battery pack on the car is almost always fully charged. Every vehicle equipped with the Series-Parallel Hybrid platform has an intelligent driving condition and driving mode management system. This system automatically recognizes the driving conditions and remaining battery level to offer the most efficient operating mode (Series or Parallel) at a specific time.

Xe Plug-in Hybrid

  • As I mentioned above, Plug-in Hybrids are pure “electric vehicles”, that is, they only use the electricity stored in the battery pack to supply the electric motor and thereby generate traction. for the car. The common feature of these vehicles is that they all have a very large Li-ion battery pack, enough to provide a relatively long journey (about a few hundred kilometers back). This battery pack is charged through an external power source, hence the name “Plug-in”.
  • In short, you can easily imagine this: you have a Plug-in Hybrid car, if you want to use it, you have to fully charge it at home, if it… “out of battery” in the middle of the road, you have to stop at a fixed charging station on the road to recharge (this is only available in developed countries), if you aim to have enough batteries, you can return home without having to visit those charging stations. Because of that inconvenient reason, Plug-in Hybrid cars are still not widely used, although many governments have provided a lot of support for their people to switch to using this type of vehicle.
  • Famous Plug-in Hybrid cars that you may have heard of such as Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt and especially recently BMW i3 and especially Tesla Model S – the fastest electric car in the world current time (top speed 210km/h, acceleration 0-100km/h in 4.2 seconds).


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